Ton des Monats April

Ebene 1

hammer-gif

Ein „kurzer, mächtig, aber dumpf hallender Schlag von nichtmetallischem Charakter (wie ein Axthieb)“. So beschrieb Gustav Mahler die Hammerschläge aus dem Finalsatz seiner Sinfonie Nr. 6 in a-moll mit dem Beinamen „Die Tragische“.

Von den ursprünglich fünf Hammerschlägen, die Mahler nachträglich in den Satz eingetragen hatte, blieben letztendlich noch zwei übrig, beide in Kombination mit einem dramatischen Motiv in den Blechbläsern. Oft wird darin ein tragischer Held gesehen, der an seinem schweren Schicksal zugrunde geht, jedoch ist die Sinfonie ausdrücklich nicht programmatisch, das heißt, dass der Klang auf nichts Außermusikalisches hindeutet, nur der Klang selbst ist wichtig.

Hammerschläge bei 01:01:38 und 01:05:44.

Um diesen Klang zu erzeugen, genügte Mahler die gewöhnliche Besetzung des Sinfonieorchesters nicht. Er führte einige neue – nennen wir sie mal – Instrumente ein (u.a. Hammer und Herdenglocken), und musste sich dafür einigen Spott gefallen lassen, wie in dieser Karikatur aus dem Jahr 1907 zu sehen ist:

Quelle: http://www.la-belle-epoque.de/mahler/karikatur.jpg

Herrgott, daß ich die Huppe vergessen habe! Jetzt kann ich noch eine Sinfonie schreiben.

Es handelt sich bei dem Hammer jedoch keineswegs um einen musikalischen Scherz, oder Effekt, auch wenn es natürlich etwas unfreiwillig komisches hat, wenn ein Percussionist im Frack inmitten eines Sinfonieorchesters auf einen Holzklotz eindrischt und alle Notenständer in der Nähe einen Satz machen.

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